As per Ayurveda, birth of healthy fetus depends on 4 essential factors i.e.,

Garbhasambhava samagri –

  • Rutu       (Ovulation period)
  • Kshetra  (Uterus)
  • Ambu     (Nutrient fluid from mother)
  • Beeja      (Sperm & Ovum)

Quality of Beeja (Sperm & Ovum) is vital for healthy progeny. If there is any dushti (defect) in beeja then the resulting fetus also will have abnormalities concerned with the parts developing from that beeja.

Causes & effects of Beeja dushti

Indian philosophy gives several reasons for defect in sperm & ovum in different contexts of various shastras.

For instance,

Viruddhahara (incompatible food) is one of the major reason for impotency (Shandatva)  & defects in the progeny (Santana dosha).

Insomnia  causes impotency (Kleebata).

Today’s lifestyle has various reasons leading to these kinds of abnormalities.

For ex:

  • Wearing tight jeans cause oligospermia (decreased sperm count)
  • Adulterated foods like milk*** & other food products may cause many defects in progeny
  • Microwaved foods are harmful to health

Today’s very big problem – POLLUTION, like air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution & various other kinds of pollution are also leading to abnormalities in sperm & ovum.

Genetically modified foods like sweet corn, yellow capsicum, seedless grapes, etc are the direct causes for hormonal disorders like PCOD, hypothyroidism in females & infertility in males.

Increased usage of pesticides in agriculture field & Chemicals in food industry is causing serious health hazards including defects in sperm & ovum (beeja dushti).

Addiction to smoking & alcohol causes changes in quality of sperm & ovum that may lead to birth defects.

Use of cosmetics by females, excessive usage of cell phones & other radiation hazards cause fertility issues & increased risk of abnormalities in fetus.

Congenital anomalies that may occur due to beeja dushti include cleft palate, anencephaly, microcephaly, bilateral congenital cataract, club feet, ASD (Atrio septal defect), VSD (Ventricular septal defect), Muscular dystrophy, Thalassemia, Sickle cell anemia, Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, ADHD (Hyperactive attention deficit syndrome, Cognitive disorders, Autism, Meningocele, Meningomylocele etc.

To screen out any abnormalities in beeja (sperm & ovum) proper pre- natal counselling & care are essential.

To trace out the causes of defect in sperm & ovum (beeja dushti), detailed medical history will be taken. Generally it includes detailed family history, past medical history, previous obstetric history, menstrual history, occupational history, substance abuse & addiction. Then physical examination & relevant investigations are done to rule out any abnormalities. If there is history of any hereditary or genetic defect in partners then chromosomal study also may be needed.

Ways of Beeja shuddhi (Correction of defect in sperm & ovum)

After identifying the causes for beeja dushti, they can be rectified with,

  • Corrections in Dinacharya             (Daily diet & regimen)
  • Adoption of proper Rutucharya    (Seasonal regimen)
  • Panchakarma                                    (Ayurvedic ways of Detoxification therapies) &
  • Beeja shuddhikara medicines        (which does cleansing of sperm & ovum)

At the mental level, stress management should be done with,

  • Yogasana
  • Pranayama
  • Meditation
  • Mantra
  • Mudra &
  • Counselling to develop positive attitude.

A healthy seed can only produce a healthy tree. Similarly, to get best progeny the utmost quality & purity of beeja is very important.


(***Note on milk adulteration: 

  1. A1 milk is obtained from cows which are genetically mutated. Consumption of such milk produces a compound BCM7 in the body which is said to be responsible for adverse health effects in humans.
  2. Milk is synthetically prepared now a days using water, detergent or soap, sodium hydroxide, vegetable oil, salt & urea. All these components can cause harmful effects on human health. It is extensively practised in village level, recently spreading to even cities.)

References :

  • Caffeine intake and semen quality in a population of 2,554 young Danish men. Jensen TK and et al American Journal of Epidemiology. 2010 Apr 15;171(8):883-91.
  • Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men. Chiu YH and et al Human  2014 Jul;29(7):1575-84.
  • Hormonal and pharmacological manipulation of the circadian clock: recent developments and future strategies.Richardson GTate B.Sleep. 2000 May 1;23 Suppl 3:S77-85.
  • Tight-fitting underwear and sperm quality. Tiemessen CHEvers JLBots RS. 1996 Jun 29;347(9018):1844-5.
  • Are boxer shorts really better? A critical analysis of the role of underwear type in male sub fertility. Munkelwitz R and et al The Journal of Urology. 1998 Oct;160(4):1329-33.
  • Influence of the type of under trousers and physical activity on scrotal temperature.Jung A  and et al Hum Reprod. 2005 Apr;20(4):1022-7.
  • Genetically modified plants and human health. Suzie Key and et al Journal of  Royal Society Medicine. 2008 Jun 1; 101(6): 290–298.
  • Health risks of genetically modified foods.Dona A. Critical Reviews in Food Sci &Nutrition. 2009 Feb;49(2):164-75.
  • Acute effects of ethanol on sex hormones in non-alcoholic men and women. Ellingboe J. Alcohol and Alcoholism Suppl. 1987;1:109-16
  • Alcohol-related birth defects: an update.Warren KR, Bast RJ. Public Health Report. 1988 Nov-Dec;103(6):638-42. Review.
  • Effect of occupational exposures on male fertility: literature review. Sheiner EK and et al, Industrial Health. 2003 Apr;41(2):55-62.
  • Occupational exposure associated with reproductive dysfunction. Kumar SJournal of Occuptional Health. 2004 Jan;46(1):1-19
  • Environmental and occupational factors affecting fertility and IVF success, Younglai EV and et al Reprod. Update(January/February 2005) 11 (1):43-57.
  • Occupational risk factors and reproductive health of women. Figà-Talamanca I, Occuptional Medicine (Lond). 2006 Dec;56(8):521-31.
  • Maternal pesticide exposure from multiple sources and selected congenital anomalies. Shaw GM  and et al 1999 Jan;10(1):60-6.
  • Reproduction disorders in women occupationally exposed to pesticides.[Article in Polish] Hanke W and et al Medycyna Pracy 2000;51(3):257-68.
  • An exploratory analysis of the effect of pesticide exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion in an Ontario farm population. Arbuckle TE  and et al. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2001 Aug;109(8):851-7.
  • Environmental Effects on Reproductive Health: The Endocrine Disruption Hypothesis. By Dore Hollander Family Planning Perspectives. Volume 29, Number 2, March/April 1997
  • Sperm quality in smokers and nonsmokers among infertile families Moskova, I. Popov Akush Ginekol (Sofiia), 32 (1) (1993), pp. 28–30
  • Evaluating the effect of smoking tobacco on some semen parameters in men of reproductive age . Ochedalski, A. Lachowicz Ochedalska, W. Dec, B. Czechowski Ginekol Pol, 65 (2) (1994), pp. 80–86
  • Prenatal stress and epilepsy in later life: a nationwide follow-up study in Denmark. Li J and et al, Epilepsy Research. 2008 Sep;81(1):52-7.
  • Endocrine activity and developmental toxicity of cosmetic UV filters–an update. Schlumpf M and et al 2004 Dec 1;205(1-2):113-22.
  • Chemical Exposures: The Ugly Side of Beauty Products Julia R. Barrett  Environmental Health Perspectives. 2005 Jan; 113(1): A24.


Note : All these explanations are based on session done by Dr. Laxmikanth Vinayak Kotirkar, from Maharashtra. He is a gold medalist in BAMS & has done Masters with first place in his college. He has done Ph.D on the subject of Beeja shuddhi. He has written books on various subjects of Ayurveda. Special thanks to him & his whole team.

(Author : Dr. Shilpa S. N, Senior consultant, Sriranga Ayurveda Chikitsa Mandira

Healthcare unit of Prakruthi Ayurveda Pratistana ®, Mysore – 23)